Marketing Culture and the Arts, 5th Edition

ISBN : 978-2-9808602-8-7
Auteur(s) : François Colbert; Philippe Ravanas
Année de publication : 2018
Pages : 358

La première édition du Marketing des Arts et de la Culture a reçu en 1994 la Médaille de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris.

François Colbert and Philippe Ravanas

with the collaboration of  Johanne Brunet, Mariachiara Restuccia, J. Dennis Rich and Yannik St.James

This book is written for managers of cultural enterprises of all types, whether large or small, non-profit or commercial, local or international, part of the cultural industry or a creative venture. In addition to presenting basic marketing concepts, it discusses how these have traditionally been applied and, most importantly, how they apply to the specific context of culture and the arts. For cultural managers interested in marketing, this book offers an analytical framework and a series of reflections that will help them assess their current practices while providing a frame of reference for selecting future courses of action.

Marketing Culture and the Arts is a useful tool for anyone seeking to understand how marketing works within the cultural context and to familiarize themselves with the unique challenges posed by artistic products in the choice of marketing strategies.

This book is a valuable resource not only for managers in the cultural milieu, but also for public administrators, private-sector managers in charge of corporate sponsorship, marketing students, and service providers.

Previous versions of this book have been published in 15 languages and are used in many universities in the world.


François Colbert

François Colbert, C.M., M.B.A., M.Sc., is Professor of Marketing at HEC Montréal, where he holds the Carmelle and Rémi Marcoux Chair in Arts Management and is responsible for the Master of Management in International Arts Management. He is Founding Editor of the International Journal of Arts Management.

Professor Colbert has been actively involved in the arts and cultural field for over 40 years. He has served on the boards of directors of numerous cultural organizations, including the Canada Council for the Arts. He is the author of close to 200 publications on arts management-related issues. In 2002 he was awarded the Order of Canada for his many achievements and for his unique contributions in developing the field of arts management.In 2005 he was named Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and in 2012 he was appointed UNESCO Chair in Cultural Management.



 Philippe RavanasPhilippe Ravanas, D.E.S.C.A.F., M.B.A., is Professor and Chairman Emeritus of the Business & Entrepreneurship Department of Columbia College in Chicago. A native of France, he is a Marketing expert with three decades of experience in building bridges between cultural industries and academia in Europe, North America, China and Russia.

He has been a Visiting Professor of HEC Montréal, of the Central Academy of Drama of Beijing (China) and has lectured extensively throughout the world. He is the Associate Editor of the International Journal of Arts Management and a contributor to the Journal of Cultural Economics.

He previously worked for the Walt Disney Company in Paris and Christie’s Auction House in London.

He has provided consulting services to the United Nations Conference on Trade & Development, the World Trade Organization, the European Parliament, the National Geographic Society, Amazon, RCA, Technicolor, Columbia Sportswear, AC Nielsen, General Electric, and Toshiba. He also has coached many cultural institutions in drafting marketing plans, including Chicago’s Second City Theatre, the San Francisco Shakespeare Festival and Boston’s Revels.

He is a drummer, has studied under jazz greats Bruno Ziarelli & Jim Latimer, and is an avid traveler.


Johanne Brunet, M.B.A., Ph.D. (Industrial and Business Studies), University of Warwick (United Kingdom), is Professor of Marketing at HEC Montréal. She specializes in international marketing of cultural industries.

Mariachiara Restuccia, Ph.D. Lecturer in Marketing, Department of Business and Management School of Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex, United Kingdom.

J. Dennis Rich, Ph.D., is retired AEMM Chair Emeritus /Performing Arts Faculty, Entertainment and Media Management Department at Columbia College Chicago.  He is a consultant, researcher, and lecturer on the international circuit.

Yannik St. James, Ph.D. (Queen’s University, Canada), is Associate Professor of Marketing at HEC Montréal. She specializes in consumer behaviour and brand management.

Chapter 1 - Cultural Enterprises and Marketing

1.1 Marketing, Artists, and the Market
        1.1.1 Marketing
                Birth and Development
                Why Use Marketing?
        1.1.2 Artists and Cultural Enterprises
                Artists’ Roles
                Cultural Enterprises and Society
                The Focus of Cultural Enterprises
                Distinctions among Cultural Enterprises
        1.1.3 Marketing Models
                Marketing Model for Market-Centred Organizations
                Marketing Model for Product-Centred Organizations
                Importance of the Customer Experience
                Marketing and Cultural Enterprises
1.2 Marketing Planning
        1.2.1 Marketing Planning Process
        1.2.2 Marketing Research
        1.2.3 Consumer Analysis
        1.2.4 Situation Analysis
        1.2.5 Strategy
                Strategies and Tactics
    1.2.6 Marketing Mix
1.3 Ethics in Marketing
Case Study

Chapter 2 - Marketing Research

2.1 Defining Markets
        2.1.1 The Consumer Market
        2.1.2 The State as a Market
        2.1.3 The Private-Sector Market
        2.1.4 The Partner Market
2.2 Research
        2.2.1 Categories of Data
                Internal Data
                Primary Data
                Secondary Data
        2.2.2 Secondary Data Research
                Public Data
                Private Data
        2.2.3 Exploratory Research
        2.2.4 Descriptive Research
                Data-Collection Techniques
                Steps Involved in Descriptive Research
                Sources of Bias and Error
        2.2.5 Causal Research
2.3 Demand
        2.3.1 Market Share
        2.3.2 The State of the Demand
                Real Demand
                Potential Demand
                Market Demand in Different Situations
Case Study
Appendix 2.1

Chapter 3 - Consumer Analysis

3.1 Overview of the consumer market
        3.1.1 Charateristics
        3.1.2 Evolution of Demand in the Leisure Market
3.2 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
        3.2.1 Principles
                Physiological Needs
                Safety Needs
                Social Needs
                Esteem Needs
                Self-Actualization Needs
        3.2.2 Marketing Applications
3.3 Segmentation
        3.3.1 Definition
        3.3.2 Techniques
                A Priori Segmentation
                Cluster-Based Segmentation
        3.3.3 Descriptors
                Geographic Descriptors
                Sociodemographic Descriptors
                Psychographic Descriptors
                Descriptors Based on Benefits
        3.3.4 Determinants
                The Customer/Non-customer Dichotomy
                Frequency or Rate of Consumption
                Degree of Product or Brand Loyalty
                The Consumer’s Level of Satisfaction
                The Preferred Brand or Type of Product
3.4 Consumer Behaviour
        3.4.1 Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity to Participate
                Motivation to Participate
                Ability to Participate
                Opportunity to Participate
        3.4.2 Cultural Participation
        3.4.3 Consumer Activities
                Involvement and Perceived Risk
                High-Involvement Cognitive Processes
                High-Involvement Affective Processes
                Low-Involvement Decision-Making
        3.4.4 Consumption Experiences
                Aesthetic and Consumption Experiences
                Consumer Participation in Experiences: Co-production, Co-creation, and Prosumption
        3.4.5 Post-consumption Activities
Case Study 1
Case Study 2

Chapter 4 - Situation Analysis

4.1 Macro-environment
        4.1.1 Demographic Environment
        4.1.2 Cultural Environment
        4.1.3 Economic Environment
        4.1.4 Political-Legal Environment
        4.1.5 Technological Environment
        4.1.6 International Market
4.2 Micro-environment
        4.2.1 Porter’s Five Forces
        4.2.2 Partnerships and Intermediaries
                Distribution Intermediaries
                Distribution Partners
4.3 Competition
        4.3.1 Overview
        4.3.2 Interdependence of Markets and Synergy
        4.3.3 Effect of Globalization on Competition
        4.3.4 Industry Fragmentation and Concentration
4.4 Product Portfolio
        Problem Children
        Cash Cows
4.5 Organizational Analysis
        4.5.1 Key Characteristics
        4.5.2 Limitations
                Lack of Resources
                Lack of Support from the Leadership or from Colleagues
                Separation of Marketing Planning from Related Programs and Services
                Lack of Proper Orientation
4.6 Swot Analysis
Case Study

Chapter 5 - Strategy

5.1 Strategy
        5.1.2 From Analysis to Strategy
                TOWS Matrix
                Mission Statement
                Vision and Objectives
        5.1.2 Development Strategies
        5.1.3 Competitive Strategies
                Competitive Advantage
                The Leader
                The Challenger
                The Follower
                The Specialist (or Nicher)
5.2 Positioning
        5.2.1 Definition
        5.2.2 Preferences, Perception, Ideal Point
        5.2.3 Types of Positioning
                Differentiation Positioning
                Price Positioning
        5.2.4 Branding
        5.2.5 Marketing Mix
5.3 Control
        5.3.1 Control by Cycle
        5.3.2 Control Metrics
        5.3.3 Marketing Audit
Case Study
For Further Reference

Chapter 6 - Product

6.1 Product
        6.1.1 Definition
        6.1.2 The Different Components of a Product
        6.1.3 Specificities of Cultural Products
                Specialized Purchases
                Product Complexity
                Service Characteristics
        6.1.4 Brand
                Brand Characteristics
                Brand Orientation
6.2 Customer Service
        6.2.1 The Cost of Poor Customer Service
        6.2.2 Defining Customer Service
                Phase 1: Activities preceding contact with the work
                Phase 2: Time spent in the presence of the work
                Phase 3: Post-consumption reactions
        6.2.3 Improving Customer Service
        6.2.4 Understanding Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention
                Tolerance for Disappointment
                The Path to Fidelity
6.3 Product Life Cycle
        6.3.1 The Concept of a Life Cycle
        6.3.2 The Five Stages of a Life Cycle
        6.3.3 Limitations of the Life Cycle Concept
        6.3.4 Product-Adoption Process
        6.3.5 Product Portfolio
6.4 Developing New Arts and Culture Products (Mariachiarra Restucia)
        6.4.1 The Innovativeness Spectrum in the Arts
        6.4.2 The Risk of New Products
        6.4.3 The New Product Development Process in Arts and Culture
                The NPD Process in Cultural Industries
                The NPD Process in the Arts Sector
                The Importance of Product Life-Cycle Management
                NPD Lessons from the Arts Sector
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
Case Study 3
For Further Reference

Chapter 7 - Price

7.1 Definition
7.2 Process
        7.2.1 Asking the Right Questions
        7.2.2 Price Elasticity
7.3 Objectives
        7.3.1 Profit-Based or Surplus-Based Objectives
        7.3.2 Sales-Based Objectives
        7.3.3 Goals Related to Competitive Balance
        7.3.4 Goals Related to Corporate Image
7.4 Methods
        7.4.1 The Consumer-Based Method
        7.4.2 The Competition-Based Method
        7.4.3 The Cost-Based Method
        7.4.4 The Pay-What-You-Want Method
7.5 Strategies
        7.5.1 Skimming
        7.5.2 Penetration
        7.5.3 Prestige Pricing
7.6 Limitations
        7.6.1 Competitive Limitation
        7.6.2 Consumer Limitation
        7.6.3 Company Costs Limitation
        7.6.4 Regulatory Limitation
7.7 Other Considerations
        7.7.1 Calculating Costs and Profitability
        7.7.2 Price and Market Segmentation
        7.7.3 Baumol Effect
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
Case Study 3
Case Study 4
For Further Reference

Chapter 8 - Place (Distribution)

8.1 Definitions
        8.1.1 The Three Elements of the Distribution Variable
        8.1.2 Distribution of Cultural Products
8.2 Distribution Channels
        8.2.1 The Functions of an Intermediary
        8.2.2 Types of Distribution Channel
        8.2.3 Managing the Distribution Channel
        8.2.4 The Behaviour of Distribution-Channel Members
8.3 Distribution Strategies
        8.3.1 Intensive, Selective, and Exclusive Distribution Strategies
        8.3.2 Push and Pull Strategies
        8.3.3 How the Strategies Interrelate
8.4 Physical Distribution
8.5 Commercial Location
        8.5.1 The Trading Area Principle
        8.5.2 Definition of the Three Trading Areas
        8.5.3 Usefulness of the Trading Area Concept
        8.5.4 Factors Determining the Extent and Configuration of the Trading Area
Case Study
For Further Reference

Chapter 9 - Promotion

9.1 Definition
9.2 Promotion Tools
        9.2.1 Personal Selling
        9.2.2 Direct Marketing
        9.2.3 Advertising
        9.2.4 Sales Promotion
        9.2.5 Public Relations
        9.2.6 Social Media
        9.2.7 Sponsorship
        9.2.8 The Promotion Mix
9.3 Functions of the Promotion Variable
        9.3.1 Communicating a Message
        9.3.2 Producing a Change in the Customer
                Defence Mechanisms
                Subliminal Advertising
9.4 The choice of Promotion Tools
        9.4.1 The Parameters of Influence
        9.4.2 A Practical Model
9.5 The receiver
9.6 The Promotion Plan
        9.6.1 The Basic Questions Any Promotion Plan Must Address
        9.6.2 The Content of a Promotion Plan
                The Stages of a Promotion Plan
                Setting Communication Objectives
                Drawing Up a Communication Budget
9.7 Sponsorship
        9.7.1 Definition
        9.7.2 Policy
        9.7.3 Successful Applications
        9.7.4 Negotiation
        9.7.5 Measurements and Control
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
For Further Reference

Chapter 10 - Technology

10.1 E-marketing
        10.1.1 Direct Marketing Principles
        10.1.2 Advantages of E-Marketing
        10.1.3 Application: Steppenwolf Theatre Company (Chicago, United States)
10.2 Online Distribution
        10.2.1 Principles
        10.2.2 The Importance of a Good Web site and Search Engine Optimization
        10.2.3 Application: Sydney Opera House (Sydney, Australia)
10.3 Customer Identification
        10.3.1 Principles
        10.3.2 Consumer Data Integration
        10.3.3 Application: Royal Albert Hall (London, United Kingdom)
10.4 Customer Modelling
        10.4.1 Principles
        10.4.2 Customer Lifetime Value
        10.4.3 Application: Stratford Festival of Canada (Stratford, Canada)
10.5 Sales Forecasting
        10.5.1 Principles
        10.5.2 Forecasting Methods
        10.5.3 Application: Steppenwolf Theatre Company (Chicago, United States)
10.6 Dynamic Pricing
        10.6.1 Principles
        10.6.2 Segmented Pricing
        10.6.3 Yield Management
        10.6.4 Negotiated Pricing
        10.6.5 Application: Chicago Symphony Orchestra (Chicago, United States)
10.7 Relationship Marketing
        10.7.1 Principles
        10.7.2 Total Experience
        10.7.3 Application: Metropolitan Opera (New York, United States)

Chapter 11 - Internationalization

        Market Potential
        Product Fit
        Service or Consultation after the Sale
        International Markets and Fairs
        A Visit to the Identified Territory
        The Product or Service
        Communications and Promotion Decisions
        Pricing Issues
        Distribution or Exportation Process
        Financing and Payment Methods
        Digital Distribution
        Rules of distribution
        Collaboration: From Co-production to Joint Venture
        Foreign Direct Investment
Case Study